Group: algorithms
Group: formalism
Group: mathematics
Group: program proving
Group: programming
Topic: algorithmic complexity analysis
Topic: automated tests of specifications and designs
Topic: evaluation in an environment
Topic: expression language
Topic: formal methods and languages
Topic: functional programming
Topic: lambda calculus
Topic: machine independent programming
Topic: no need for efficiency
Topic: predicate transforms
Topic: programming without errors
Topic: reduction machines
Topic: setoriented languages
Topic: specification is infeasible
Topic: symbolic manipulation of formulas
Topic: transformation of programs
Topic: what is a computer
 
Summary
The academic view of programming is that it is a part of mathematics. The champion of this view is Dijkstra with the support of many others. The hope is that a formal approach will handle the massive detail of programming without ad hoc methods and trial and error. Dijkstra even thinks that it will lead to a superior means of thought.
Mathematical approaches emphasize expressions over procedure. Ideally a program is an expression from one domain into another domain. At least a program satisfies a postcondition whenever its input satisfies a precondition. Programming languages may have a strong mathematical flavor.
Unfortunately, the real world doesn't fit into this mold. Programs in daily use are large and complex. Except in the scientific and numeric methods domains, programs tend to use very simple statements and unsophisticated algorithms. There are many special cases, and understandability is more important that formality. (cbb 4/94)
Subtopic: programming is mathematical
Quote: mathematics is what programming becomes when freed of all considerations of efficiency [»schwJT_1972]
 Subtopic: programs are mathematical
Quote: procedural programs are mathematical expressions subject to a set of laws [»hoarCA8_1987]
 Quote: computer programs are mathematical expressions of behavior, but they are not treated as such in practice [»hoarCA8_1986]
 Quote: a program is an elaborate formulae for some formal system; made concrete by a computer [»dijkEW12_1989]
 Quote: the purpose of a computer is to execute our programs, not vice versa [»dijkEW3_1976]
 Subtopic: program with mathematics
Quote: with a programming language, deal with mathematical integers instead of bitpatterns and addresses [»straC3_1973]
 Quote: mathematical functions are a good foundation for sequential computation; nothing comparable for concurrent programming [»milnR1_1993]
 Subtopic: formality and correctness
Quote: formality is important in programming because of the large amount of detail which must be absolutely correct [»grieD_1981]
 Subtopic: concise, formal notation
Quote: by not using concise, formal notation, many authors exceed the fiveline limit and introduce too much complexity
 Subtopic: mathematical definition of language
Quote: a programming language should have a complete, mathematical, definition independent of a compiler or computer [»wirtN3_1976]
 Subtopic: symbolic calculation
Quote: computing science may provide symbolic calculation that is better than human reasoning; Leibniz's dream [»dijkEW12_1989]
 Quote: never anthropomorphize programs or equipment; think of programs in terms of computational behavior based on a model [»dijkEW12_1989]
 Subtopic: symbol strings vs. abstract objects
Quote: programming languages deal with abstract objects, contrary to the conventional view that programs are symbol strings plus rules for manipulating these strings; the later yields a macrogenerator without regard to semantics [»straC8_1967]
 Subtopic: values vs. steps, expressions
Quote: the world of expressions is orderly, has useful algebraic properties, and performs most useful computation [»backJ8_1978a]
 Quote: "mathematical" approach to programming considers values of expressions instead of the steps that produced them [»straC3_1973]
 Quote: a language is a mapping between expressions and a domain of discourse; if a function, the meaning of an expression is its consequent [»backJ_1973, OK]
 Quote: a program is a partial function from initial states and valid inputs to possible ending states [»parnDL8_1983]
 Quote: a program is a nondeterministic mechanism that changes the state of the machine it controls
 Subtopic: mathematical language for algorithms
Quote: simplified the semantics of Dijkstra's minilanguage, while increasing its expressiveness [»redeDH7_1979]
 Quote: a set of laws for types of algorithmic control; e.g., A*.A = A.A* (both sequences of A) [»kapoAA1_1978, OK]
 Quote: 'A*' for repetition, 'A.B' for sequence, 'A+B' for selection, 'K:=U' for definition of K [»kapoAA1_1978]
 QuoteRef: takaH1_1980 ;;62 "Condor is founded on circuit theory, i.e., a Condor program corresponds to a clockfree Boolean equation system and the like.
 Subtopic: programming is not math
Quote: programs are inevitably richer than their mathematical description; e.g., integer data type is not the same as a mathematical integer [»weisM11_1987]
 Quote: mathematics and expression languages are poor models for programming [»cbb_1980, OK]
 Quote: the need for user testing demonstrates that rational analysis is not sufficient for system design [»goulJD3_1985]
 Quote: most practical programming doesn't involve much mathematical theory; contradicts computer science education [»boreNS_1991]
 Quote: little agreement about the effectiveness of formally complete descriptions of Turing's universal machine

Related Topics
Group: algorithms (6 topics, 94 quotes)
Group: formalism (9 topics, 478 quotes)
Group: mathematics (23 topics, 560 quotes)
Group: program proving (10 topics, 311 quotes)
Group: programming (339 topics, 10149 quotes)
Topic: algorithmic complexity analysis (10 items)
Topic: automated tests of specifications and designs (12 items)
Topic: evaluation in an environment (35 items)
Topic: expression language (14 items)
Topic: formal methods and languages (53 items)
Topic: functional programming (45 items)
Topic: lambda calculus (16 items)
Topic: machine independent programming (13 items)
Topic: no need for efficiency (28 items)
Topic: predicate transforms (7 items)
Topic: programming without errors (28 items)
Topic: reduction machines (14 items)
Topic: setoriented languages (20 items)
Topic: specification is infeasible (46 items)
Topic: symbolic manipulation of formulas (12 items)
Topic: transformation of programs (27 items)
Topic: what is a computer (62 items)
